Soil conservation refers to those methods which prevent soil from moving out of their place. Various methods have been adopted to prevent soil erosion in different areas of the world. The methods of soil conservation are: Protecting forests, Plantation, Constipation, Land reclamation, Flood control, Prevention of excessive grazing, Barred and Steep farming, Contour linear plowing and dryness.
Soil is a very important resource. It fits different types of organisms directly or indirectly. In addition, soil-building is a very slow process. The process of soil erosion has not only destroyed this unique gift of nature but has also created many types of problems. Soil erosion leads to floods. These floods cause considerable damage to roads and railways, bridges, hydroelectric projects, water supply and pumping centers.
Methods of Soil Conservation:-
Indiscriminate harvesting of forest trees is the main reason for soil erosion. The root of the trees binds the soil substances. This is the reason that the governments have declared forests as ‘safe’ and have stopped planting of trees in these forests. This method of soil conservation is suitable for all types of terrain. The forests are called ‘messengers’ who bring rain.
Planting trees on river valleys, barren lands and hillsides is another method of soil conservation. This reduces soil erosion in these states. Plantation is an effective way to control wind erosion in the desert areas. By planting trees in the border areas of the desert regions, the desert sand can be stopped in the fields. In this way the growth of the desert areas seems to be curb.
In the rainy season the amount of water is increased in the rivers. This increases the erosion of soil. Dam has been built on rivers for flood control. These help in preventing soil erosion. Floods can also be prevented by turning rivers of water into canals to drought-hit areas and other planned methods of water conservation.
Due to extreme grazing, the slopes of hill slopes become loose and the water flows through these loose soil easily. The vegetation cover can be saved from the planned grazing in these areas. Thus soil erosion of these areas can be reduced.
To make a bond
Soil erosion is being prevented by creating obstruction or obstruction in land affected by avalanche erosion. This method not only helps prevent erosion of soil, but also helps in maintaining soil fertility, conserving water resources and leveling the soil.
Making terraced farm
Another method is to build a terraced farm for the protection of soil on mountain molds. The making of a terraced farm is meant to make flat terrain across the slopes in mountainous regions. With this method the erosion of soil in these areas stops. There is also proper use of water resources. Thus crops can be grown in these farms.
Adoption of barricade of agriculture
This method of soil conservation is most suitable for the deserted plains of the desert and semi-arid regions. In this method the fields are divided into straps. A bar is cultivated for one year while the second bar is empty without sowing. The vegetative cover of the drop bar prevents soil erosion and maintains fertility. This process is reversed the next year.
Flat soil erosion can also prevent soil erosion. This method of soil conservation is most suitable for river basins and hill states. In our country, wide areas with the spoken areas of Chambal and Yamuna rivers have been leveled by this method.